The history of Great Britain / История Великобритании
Текст выше средней сложности — The history of Great Britain / История Великобритании
As any other country Britain has its own history, with periods of prosperity and decay. The first inhabitants of the island were Iberians, who probably form the basis of the present-day population in Western England, Wales, North and Western Scotland and Ireland. They came between 3000 and 2000 ВС. Soon a new race from east of Europe came. The ancient people who gradually merged together, left behind impressive monuments, connected with religious acts at Stonehenge and other places. Stonehenge also served as an ancient observatory.
Soon after 700 ВС Britain was invaded by the Celts, who came from Central Europe. Their language developed into the Celtic language of modern Wales. In AD 43 the Romans began an invasion. It resulted in the Roman occupation of Britain. The Romans built many military roads, walls, and towns according to their tradition.
In some parts of the country these roads to these days form the basis of road communication. The largest of the towns was called Londinium. It was on the river Thames, where London is today. It became the capital city.
In the 5th century Britain was subject to the attacks of the Germanic tribes of the Jutes, the Saxons and the Angles. Eventually the invaders settled down and formed a number of small kingdoms. The Anglo-Saxons and Jutes were close to each other in language and customs, and they gradually became one people. In the 7th — 9th centuries important changes took place among the members of the Anglo-Saxons communities. Land became private property of separate families. It was the beginning of feudal relations. The Danish invasions of the 9th and 10th centuries brought a new wave of the development of feudal relations in England.
At the beginning of the 9th century the Danes and Norsemen began to occupy the country. They ruled the country tor several decades till 1042. 24 years later the invasion by the Normans under William the Conqueror began. The social structure of the country was very similar to the rest of Europe. The Norman invaders brought their language with them too. They spoke a Norman dialect and it became the language of administration, the official language of the state. Latin was the language of the Church, law and learning. However, the common people continued to speak English.
The economic development of the country during the Middle Ages (11th — 15th centuries) illustrates the exploitation of the peasant by the feudal lords, as well as by the church. Trade developed throughout the country. By the 14th century most English towns were becoming free from feudal restrictions. Besides, the country had a strong Monarchy and a Parliament. The 15th century was a period of civil wars, Wars of the Roses (1455—85). In form it was a struggle between two mart powerful feudal families — the House of Lancaster which had the emblem of the red rose and the House of York with the emblem of the white rose. It weakened economically and independently old feudal families.
Wars of the Roses could not prevent the economic development of the country. In the 15th — 16th centuries the clothing industry was well developed. The cloth was exported. Cloth industry gave development to capitalistic relations It brought a new wave of cultural and scientific development. The English bourgeois revolution took place in a country where capitalism developed faster than in any other country of Europe. As a result of its development England 100 years later alter the revolution became the first industrial state in the world, a power, which had created the largest colonial empire. The triumph of capitalism in England gave a powerful impulse to the development of capitalism all over the world. The 18th century brought the Industrial Revolution. It caused social changes. English society was breaking up into two basic classes — the proletarians and the capitalists. The working-class began to defend their rights.
Britain’s relatively peaceful development ended in the year 1914. Britain entered Strikes and unemployment were the result of it. World War II was another difficult period in the history of Britain. The British people withstood heavy bombing with great courage. London itself was bombed for 76 nights continuously.
BC («before Christ») — до нашей эры
AD (Anno Domini, Latin — «in the year of Christ») — нашей эры
to settle down — оседать
a peasant — сельский житель
a restriction — ограничение
to withstand — противостоять
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Дополнение с предлогом to (или for)
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История Великобритании для изучающих английский язык
Do you want to know the History of Great Britain? Let us start with the pre-Celtic Period
Hundreds of years, a thousand of years and even farther back there were people living in the land which is now called Britain. What happened to them we can only fancy. The historians and archeologists try to piece together the story of those days by looking carefully at the relics that have come down to us from them through more than two thousand centuries.
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Do you know how Stonehenge was built?
Stonehenge is a monument to the pre — celtic civilization. Rude and majestic, this monument stands on Salisbury Plain. According to the data from the English Heritage its constuction started in about 3000 B.C. and consisted of several phases (see pictures below).
Now we can see the semi-circular ruin. It is all that was left from that circular gigantic structure. Have you ever thought that some ancient architects just played cards? They put huge stones on perpendicular props so that the whole structure looks like houses built of playing cards. The horisontal slabs seem be soaring — whence the name of the structure, the “Hanging Stones” that is “Stonehenge”.
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Do you want to know more about the History of Great Britain? Let us continue… with the Celts
At that time Britain was known only as a faraway land wrapped in mists and mystery. It was covered with thick forests, which grew in those parts that were not mountainous. These islands attracted many people who were moving west under the pressure of the growing population in the Continent, especially near the Rhine (what is now France and Germany).
Between the sixth and the third century B.C, the British Isles were invaded by Celtic tribes. This period is often reffered to as the Iron Age.
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It was a beautiful and desperate spring of the year 449 when long narrow boats of newcomers came swiftly to the shores of Kent or nearby and landed there. The resistance was useless as the tall strong men with flowing hair and bronzed faces, glittering swords and shields leaped ashore one after another. They came from the meadows by the marshes, from the dark woods and the flat and sandy shores of the North Sea, which were overcrowded and couldn’t give enough food for the people, living there. So, the newcomers became masters of the land which we know now as England but at those time it hadn’t had any name yet.
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From this article you will know about the times when the British Isles were covered with forests and the greater part of them was very misty and cold. The stormy sea roared round them, and few travellers dared to swim asross the sea to explore the far away land.
But there was a nation on the shores of the Mediterranean sea who were learned and powerful. That was the Roman nation. In the century just before Christ (B.C.) the great soldier and ruler, Julius Caesar, with his army visited Great Britain two summers running and decribed it to the civilised world.
- two summers running — два лета подряд
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Перевод с английского Е. Воловодова
Хотели бы вы познакомиться с историей Англии? Давайте начнем с докельтского периода
Более ста, даже тысячи лет назад на земле, которая сейчас называется Британией, жили люди. Что с ними случилось, мы можем только предполагать. Историки и археологи пытаются собрать по кусочкам историю тех дней, внимательно изучая следы, дошедшие до нас спустя более двух тысяч лет.
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History of Great Britain — История Великобритании
Топик средней сложности — History of Great Britain — История Великобритании
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country of great history rich in important events and entertaining legends connected with them. It’s not enough to write several volumes to tell the full history of the country. That’s why we’ll try to answer the question where the British come from and who they are.
They say, that in prehistoric times Britain was joined to Europe. So the first people came there over dry land. The present English Channel which separates Britain from Europe appeared at the end of the Ice Age. In the New Stone Age the hunters crossed the sea to the west of the Channel and settled along the Western shores in search of food. The first inhabitants of the island came from the Iberian peninsula, where Spain is located, somewhere after 3000 ВС. After 2000 ВС the people from the east of Europe entered the country. The two peoples intermixed. They left us Stonehenge and Avebury as impressive monuments of their time.
After 800 ВС the Celts arrived from Central Europe and opened up a new important page of the British history. The name «Britain» comes from the name of a Celtic tribe known as the Britons. Their influence was greatest in Wales, Scotland and Ireland, as they were driven to these parts by the invaders who followed them. That’s why these parts of Britain are very different from England in language, customs and traditions.
In 55 ВС Julius Caesar, the Roman ruler, invaded Britain. However, his first expedition was not successful, because his force was small, and the Celts fought well. In the following year 54 ВС he invaded the country with a larger army and this time the expedition was successful: the Celts were defeated. But Caesar didn’t stay in Britain. He left the country with slaves and riches and made the Celts pay a regular tribute to Rome.
Some 90 years later, in 43 AD, the country was conquered by the Romans and the occupation continued to the beginning of the 5th century (410 AD). Roman influence was greatest in the south and south-east, while in the north and west the country remained untouched. The Romans built many towns, connected them by good roads. The largest of the towns was called Londinium. Roman culture and civilization had a positive influence on the development of the country. When the Romans left, Britain remained independent for some time.
However quite soon it was attacked by Germanic tribes: the Jutes, the Saxons and the Angles. And by the end of the 5th century the greater part of the country was occupied. People began to call the new land of the Angles and Saxons England. Wales, Cornwall, the northern part of Britain and Ireland remained unconquered and preserved Celtic culture.
The Saxon kingdoms fought one against the other. In 829 the greater part of the country was united under the name England.
The northern part was the home of the Picts and Scots. After the conquest of the Picts by the Scots in the 9th Century this territory was called Scotland. And in’ the 11th century a united Scottish kingdom was formed.
An important event which contributed to the unification of the country was the adoption of Christianity in England in 664.
In the 9th century the Danes attacked England. It was Alfred who defeated the Danes making them sign a peace agreement.
The last of the invaders to come to Britain were the Normans from France. In 1066 Duke William of Normandy defeated the English at the battle of Hastings and established his rule as king of England known as William the Conqueror. The French language became the official language of the ruling class for the next three centuries. This explains the great number of French words in English. The power of the state grew and little by little England began to spread its power. First on Wales, then on Scotland and later on Ireland. Wales was brought under the English parliament in 1536 and 1542 by Henry VIII.
In 1603 the son of Mary Queen of Scots James Stuart became James I of England. The union of England, Wales and Scotland became known as Great Britain. However the final unification of Scotland and England took place in 1707 when both sides agreed to form a single parliament in London for Great Britain j although Scotland continued to keep its own system of law, education and have an independent church.
Ireland was England’s first colony, but even now there are problems there connected with religion. The Irish people can be divided into two religious groups: Catholics and Protestants. The fighting between these groups is connected with the colonial past. In the 16th century Henry VIII of England quarreled with Rome and declared himself head of the Anglican Church, which was a Protestant church. He tried to force Irish Catholics to become Anglican. This policy was continued by his daughter Elizabeth I. The «Irish question» remained in the centre of British politics till 1921. After a long and bitter struggled the southern part of Ireland became a Free State. The northern part of Ireland where the Protestants were in majority remained part of the UK. After all the years of confrontation the people of Northern Ireland understand that only through peace talks and respect for the rights of both Catholics and Protestants can peace be achieved.
Recently, there have been many waves of immigration into Britain. Now Britain is a multinational society, which benefits from the influence of different people and cultures.
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История Великобритании на английском
Отдельной строкой и, соответственно, топиком стоит рассказать о прошлом страны. История Англии очень длинная, многообразная. Любовь и ненависть, злость и предательства, война и мир, смена династий, падение и восхождение — чего только там не было. Об о всем об этом лаконично, грамотно и кратко расскажет наша статья.
Если вы хотите понять душу Англии, то вам непременно стоит научиться описывать историю Великобритании на английском. Лично для вас — это расширение словарного запаса, кругозора. Помимо этого, вы будете понимать, как появилось название, монархия и не упадете в грязь при беседе на эту тему лицом даже с коренными жителями. Итак, как звучит история Англии на английском языке?
The history of Great Britain is long and very exciting. The Celts1 crossed over from Europe to the British Isles centuries before the Roman invasion2.The Roman province in this area covered3 most of the territory of present Wales and England. The Romans influenced 4 the way of living, language and culture greatly.
In the 5th centure the Angles and the Saxons (two Germanic tribes)5settled6 in Britain and occupied a very vast7 territory. They were pagans8. Christianity9 came to Britain from Rome in 597. Angeles and Saxons conquered10 against Celts during the 5th and 6th centuries A.D. These Germanic conquerors gave England its name — «Angle» land.
In the 11th century Normans invaded11 Britain. This invasion had a great influence on the life of Britain. For example, a feudal system was imposed12 — Lords, barons who were French-speaking Normans and the peasants13 (the English-speaking Saxons). So the English class system was built. At this time Middle English as a language dominated in England.
During the 16th century the English monarch became very powerful. The Tudor dynasty (1485—1603) established14 a system of government. Parliament was split15 into two Houses and compeletely depended on the monarch. But during the 17th century it was established the supremacy16 of the parliament over the monarchy in Britain. The conflict had happend and the Civil War17 began. Parliament won the war, the king was executed18 and Oliver Cromwell became the leader. But after his death this system of government was forgotten and the son of the king was returned to the throne.
In the 18th century the Industrial Revolution19 started. Many of people who had lived in the rural areas20 moved to towns. The population of London became about a million. In the next century Britain governed one of the biggest world’s Empire. It was made up21 of Canada, Ireland, India, Australia and large parts of Africa. They had internal 22 self-government, but recognized the authority23 of the British government. Britain had a great economic power. The English spread their culture around the world.
The 20th century was not stable. There were a lot of struggles for the rights: women, the working class. They became more powerful and stronger.
Of course, I have told you the main facts about the past of the country. There were a lot of interesting events in Briatan and you can read about them in special literature.
- Celts — кельты
- the Roman invasion — римское нашествие, завоевание
- covered — покрывать/ занимать
- influenced — влиять/ воздействовать
- the Angles and the Saxons (two Germanic tribes) — Англы и Саксы (два племени)
- settle — осесть
- vast — обширный
- pagans — язычники
- Christianity — христианство
- conquer- завоевывать
- invade — вторглись/ напали/ захватили
- impose — навязывать
- peasants — крестьяне
- establish — установить
- to be split — быть расколотым
- the supremacy — верховенство
- Civil War — гражданская война
- to be executed — быть казненным
- the Industrial Revolution — индустриальная (промышленная) революция
- rural areas — сельская местность
- to be made up — состояла из
- internal — внутренний
- recognized the authority — признавать авторитет/ верховенство/ подчинялись власти
Представленная нами история Великобритании на английском будет вам хорошим началом в углублении знаний. Мы перечислили наиболее важные события, наиболее значимые, но вы на этом можете не останавливаться. Поверьте, там столько тайн, которые непременно вовлекут вас в чудесный мир прошлого.
Выдающиеся события в истории Великобритании
Тема по английскому языку: Выдающиеся события в истории Великобритании
Топик по английскому языку: Выдающиеся события в истории Великобритании (Оutstanding events in the history of Great Britain). Данный текст может быть использован в качестве презентации, проекта, рассказа, эссе, сочинения или сообщения на тему.
В истории Великобритании было множество выдающихся событий. Тысячи лет назад Великобритания была соединена с Европой и покрыта льдом. Страна превратилась в остров 8000 лет назад. Первые люди пришли в Великобританию два с половиной миллиона лет назад. Они были охотниками и добытчиками пищи, которые использовали простые каменные инструменты и орудия.
Часть Римской Империи
В 43 году римляне вторглись в Британию, и она стала частью Римской Империи, что несомненно наложило свой отпечаток на Британию и, даже сегодня, кое-где можно увидеть руины римских построек, крепостей и дорог.
Позже были вторжения анго-саксов и викингов, но самым важным было нормандское завоевание, которое началось в 1066. Нормандцы сильно повлияли на британскую цивилизацию. Они построили много замков и внедрили феодальную систему.
Черная смерть, или бубонская чума, которая обрушилась на Англию в 1348 и продолжалась до 1349, унесла жизни почти половины населения страны.
Акты объединения 1536, 1707 и 1800 объединили Англию с Уэльсом, Шотландией и Ирландией. В 1606 государственный флаг Соединенного Королевства был принят в качестве национального флага Британии.
Среди других выдающихся событий стоит отметить Великую чуму в Лондоне (1664-1665), когда люди заболевали один за другим и умирали за один день. Они пытались убежать из города, но специальный караул их не выпускал. В городе умерли почти 100 000 человек. За этой трагедией последовал Великий пожар, разразившийся в Лондоне в 1666. Он разрушил две трети города: 13 200 домов, 430 улиц и 89 церквей.
Важные события 20 века
Самыми важными событиями, произошедшими в 20 веке были Первая и Вторая мировые войны, начало правления королевы Елизаветы II в 1952 и вступление в Евросоюз в 1973.
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Outstanding events in the history of Great Britain
There were lots of outstanding events in the history of Great Britain. Thousands of years ago, Great Britain was joined to Europe and was covered with ice. The country became an island about 8000 years ago. The first men and women came to Britain over two and a half million years ago. They were hunters and gatherers of food who used simple stone tools and weapons.
Part of the Roman Empire
In 43 A.D. the Romans invaded Britain and it became part of the Roman Empire, which made its mark on Britain, and even today, the ruins of Roman buildings, forts and roads can be found all over Britain.
Later, there were invasions of the Anglo-Saxons and Vikings, but the most important was the Norman Conquest, which began in 1066. The Normans influenced the British civilization greatly. They built lots of castles and imposed a feudal system.
The Black Death or bubonic plague, which arrived in England in 1348 and continued till 1349, killed nearly half of the population.
Acts of Union
Acts of Union of 1536, 1707 and 1800 joined England with Wales, Scotland and Ireland respectively. In 1606 the Union flag was adopted as the National Flag of Britain.
Among some other outstanding events we should mention the Great Plague in London (1664-1665), when people fell ill one after another and died in one day. They began to run out of the city but the special guard didn’t let them go. Nearly 100,000 people died in the city. The tragedy was followed by the Great Fire, which broke out in London in 1666. It destroyed two thirds of the City: 13,200 houses, 430 streets and 89 churches.
Most important events
The most important events that took place in the 20th century were the Fist and the Second World Wars, the beginning of Queen Elizabeth’s II reign in 1952 and joining the European Community in 1973.
|Текст на английском||Перевод|
|London is one of the most cosmopolitan cities in the world, if not perhaps the most cosmopolitan. London has always been a cosmopolitan city, since its Roman origins. The capital of Great Britain was born and raised under the sign of a multi-ethnic society. It may seem like a cliché, but walking through the streets of London is easy to realize how difficult it is to meet British passers-by in London, while it will be much more likely to meet Italians, Spaniards, Japanese, Chinese, Koreans, Germans, French, Norwegians, Brazilians, Australians etc.||Лондон — один из самых космополитических городов в мире, если не самый космополитический. Лондон всегда был космополитическим городом, начиная с его римского происхождения. Современная столица Соединенного Королевства родилась и выросла под знаком многоэтнического общества. Это может показаться клише, но прогуливаясь по улицам Лондона легко понять, как сложно встретить настоящих британцев в Лондоне, тогда как гораздо больше шансов повстречаться с итальянцами, испанцами, японцами, китайцами, корейцами, немцами, французами, норвежцами, бразильцами, австралийцами и т. д.|
|London has been for centuries a magnet for creative minds. From William Shakespeare to Jimi Hendrix and J.K. Rowling, all the best in the art world was inspired by London. It still attracts the best talents of art, theater, musicals, but also comedians and greats of contemporary literature.||Лондон веками был магнитом для творческих умов. От Уильяма Шекспира до Джими Хендрикса и Дж. К. Роулинг, все лучшее в мире искусства вдохновлялось Лондоном. Он по-прежнему привлекает лучшие таланты искусства, театра, мюзиклов, но также комиков и великих людей современной литературы.|
|London moves at the rhythm of its own music. From Ed Sheeran and Adele to Beatles and Rolling Stones, England has produced an infinite number of artists who have made the history of international music.||Лондон движется в ритме собственной музыки. От Эд Ширан и Адель до Битлз и Роллинг Стоун Англия породила бесконечное количество музыкантов, которые делали историю международной музыки.|
|The capital of music, of young fashion, of the trend in general. It all started with the Beatles, the Rolling Stones, and the Mary Quant miniskirts. Even today it is a point of reference. Notting Hill, East London, Kensington, and Abbey Road: times have changed, but the charm continues to be unique.||Столица музыки, молодой моды, тренда в целом. Все началось с «Битлз», «Роллин Стоун» и мини-юбок Мэри Куант. Даже сегодня это точка отсчета. Ноттинг-Хилл, Ист-Лондон, Кенсингтон и Эбби-роуд: времена изменились, но обаяние по-прежнему остается уникальным.|
|The city boasts numerous summer music festivals, including the British Summer Time Festival at Hyde Park and Wireless at Finsbury Park.||В городе проходят многочисленные летние музыкальные фестивали, в том числе фестиваль летнего времени в Гайд-парке и Wireless в парке Финсбери.|
|The National Portrait Gallery and Tate Britain are home to famous collections of classical art, while the Tate Modern is internationally renowned for modern art. When the sun is shining, walk the streets and enjoy the city’s markets, which are of all shapes and sizes and sell curious and wonderful products: they are a great way to get to know London.||Национальная портретная галерея и Тейт – место собрания знаменитых коллекций классического искусства, а современная галерея Тейт всемирно известна современным искусством. Когда солнце сияет, гуляйте по улицам и наслаждайтесь рынками города, которые имеют все формы и размеры и продают любопытные и замечательные продукты: они – отличный способ познакомиться с Лондоном.|
|There will not even be two evenings equal to each other in London. Try the newest and trendiest bars and restaurants in East London, go dancing in the legendary London nightclubs or go to a concert of the best London bands or go and see the big names of the theater in Soho or Shoreditch.||В Лондоне ни один вечер не похож на другой. Испытайте самые новые и модные бары и рестораны в Ист-Лондоне, потанцуйте в легендарных ночных клубах Лондона или посетите концерты лучших лондонских групп или посетите знаменитые театры в Сохо или Шордитче.|
|London is home to international designers such as Vivienne Westwood, Galliano, Stella McCartney, Manolo Blahnik, and Jimmy Choo, its stores and renowned fashion schools make it an international fashion center along with Paris, Milan and New York.||Лондон является домом для международных дизайнеров, таких как Вивьен Вествуд, Гальяно, Стелла Маккартни, Маноло Бланик и Джимми Чу; его магазины и знаменитые школы моды, которые делают его международным центром моды наряду с Парижем, Миланом и Нью-Йорком.|
|You may have heard of the English Royal Family, they are a fairly important subject in Great Britain, especially in London, where the odds of seeing the Royal Family are always very high. Take a stroll along The Mall, the famous three-lane boulevard that leads to Buckingham Palace. Here, you can witness the pompous British royal tradition of changing the guard.||Возможно, вы слышали об английской королевской семье, это довольно важный субъект в Англии, особенно в Лондоне, где шансы увидеть королевскую семью всегда очень высоки. Прогуляйтесь по Мэлл, знаменитому бульвару с тремя полосами, который ведет в Букингемский дворец. Здесь вы можете наблюдать помпезную британскую королевскую традицию смены караула.|
|The city’s parks, like the city itself, are full of surprises: they host zoos, outdoor theaters, and swimming pools.||Парки города, как и сам город, полны сюрпризов: в них размещаются зоопарки, открытые театры и бассейны.|
|The cuisine of Great Britain may be the subject of many jokes but you will be pleasantly surprised by what London has to offer. The elegant restaurants, the delicious food of the stalls and the experimental dishes in particular environments all contribute to the international cuisine of London. Which does not mean that you cannot find a full English breakfast or a Sunday roast: just go into a traditional cafe or pub with a kitchen to taste the English specialties!||Английская кухня может быть предметом многих шуток, но вы будете приятно удивлены тем, что может предложить. Лондон. Элегантные рестораны, вкусная еда в киосках и экспериментальные блюда в определенных условиях – все вносят вклад в международную кухню Лондона. Это не означает, что вы не можете найти полноценный английский завтрак или воскресное жаркое: просто зайдите в традиционное кафе или паб с кухней, чтобы отведать блюда английской кухни!|
|You could spend a lifetime exploring the city and it would never stop surprising you. From Camden to Kensington, passing through every other place, the different districts of London have a particular personality.||Вы могли бы потратить всю жизнь на изучение города, и он никогда не перестанет удивлять вас. От Камдена до Кенсингтона, проходя через другие места, разные районы Лондона обладают особой индивидуальностью.|
|To those who were about to visit London for the first time, and maybe arrive there in the late at night, I highly recommend taking the Jubilee line and getting off at Westminster. The show that will stand before your eyes at the exit of the Tube will leave you breathless: the Big Ben and the wonderfully illuminated Parliament, immersed in the typical London atmosphere characterized by black taxis and red double-decker buses, will completely capture you.||Тем, кто только собирается в Лондон в первый раз, и, возможно, приедет туда поздно вечером, я настоятельно рекомендую сесть в метро на Юбилейной линии и выйти на станции Вестминстер. Зрелище, которое предстанет перед глазами на выходе из Трубы, заставит затаить дыхание: Биг Бен и волшебно освещенный парламент, погруженный в типичную лондонскую атмосферу, с черными такси и красными двухэтажными автобусами, полностью пленят вас.|
Brief History of Great Britain (История Великобритании в кратком изложении)
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The first Celtic tribes (племена) are believed to have come to the British Isles between 800 and 700 BC. Two centuries later they were followed by the Brythons or ancient Britons after whom the country was called Britain.
The first Roman invasion (завоевание) was led by Julius Caesar in 55 BC. But Britain was not conquered until some 90 years later, under Emperor Claudius, in 43 AD. Although the Roman occupation of Britain lasted nearly 400 years, its effects were few. The people did not adopt the Latin language and so Latin did not displace Celtic.
In the middle of the 5th century, three Germanic tribes — The Angles, Saxons and Jute’s invaded Britain from the continent. From the 8th century the Anglo-Saxons had to face Scandinavian invaders — the Danes and the Norsemen sometimes refereed to as Vikings — who occupied parts of Britain and made some permanent settlements. The Scandinavian invasions continued till the 11th century.
The period of feudalism started around 1066 and lasted to the 15th century. In this period the modern English nation and language came into being. It was a period of struggle for power between kings and between powerful nobles, a period of frequent wars. But it was also a period in which the development of the wool trade and the early decline of feudalism prepared the way for England’s rise as a world power.
The period between 1485 and 1603 is known as the Tudor Period (Эпоха Тюдоров (английская королевская династия 15-17 вв.)). It was a turning point in English history. England became one of the leading powers. The two famous rulers of the House of Tudor were Henry VIII and Elisabeth I. The Elizabethan age (елизаветинская эпоха) produced the world’s greatest playwright William Shakespeare.
The first 40 years of the 17th century can be characterised as a period of growing conflict between the King and parliament, representing the interests of the bourgeoisie. The conflict led to the civil war in 1640 which resulted in the abolition (отмена, упразднение, уничтожение, ликвидация,аннулирование) of the monarchy and in Cromwell’s military rule in the middle of the century. This period ended in the Glorious Revolution («Славная революция» (1688-89 — государственный переворот, завершившийся свержением Якова II (James II) и утверждением на престоле Вильгельма III Оранского (William III of Orange) и его супруги Марии (Mary). Привёл к установлению господства землевладельческой знати и крупной буржуазии, а к установлению конституционной парламентской монархии)) which marked the end of the English bourgeois revolution.
In the period of 1688 to 1760 England definitely took the lead in European commerce. During the Industrial Revolution (1760 — 1850) Britain became the first industrial power in the world, «the workshop of the world.» The Anglo — French rivalry for world domination which had started in the previous period continued and culminated in the Napoleonic Wars (1803 — 1815).
The Victorian era which comprised the second half of the 19th century, called after Queen Victoria, was a period in which Britain became the strongest world power: besides being the greatest financial and commercial power, the greatest sea power and the greatest colonial power. In was the era of the greatest colonial expansion.
The 20th century is a period of the decline of Britain as a world power a period of crises of the two world wars, from which Britain emerged as a victor, but greatly weakened. It is characterised by the disintegration of Britain’s colonial empire and the effort to adjust Britain to the new situation by joining the other developed capitalist countries of Western Europe in EEC (ЕЭС, Европейское экономическое сообщество).